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Physical/Chemical Parameters:Fensulfothion

Fensulfothion

      PESTICIDE NAME: Fensulfothion
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      Trade name(s): Dasanit
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      Manufacturer(s): Mobay Chemical Corporation
                       Agri. Chemicals Div.
                       P.O. Box 4913
                       Kansas City, Mo. 64120
      I.  Basic information
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          A. Molecular structure: C11H17O4PS2
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          B. Chemical name: O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl)phenyl]
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      phosphorothioate
          C. Derivatives: sulfide and sulfone
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          D. Molecular weight: 308.3 g/mole
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          E. Solubility in water: 1600 mg/l
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          F. Common physical appearance: No information available
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          G. Oral LD50(rat): 2-11 mg/kg
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          H. Pesticide classification: organophosphate insecticide,
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      nematicide
          I. Restricted use list (N.Y.): yes
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             EPA priority pesticide list: no
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          J. Crop use: corn, onion, potato, radish, turnip, rutabaga,
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      cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts
      II. Text
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           Fensulfothion is an organophosphate insecticide (nematicide) used
      on vegetable crops in New York.  It is on the restricted use list of
      New York and breaks down to the metabolites sulfide and sulfone in
      soils.  Fensulfothion undergoes rapid transformation in soil with a
      half-life estimated to be between 5 and 24 wks.  The scientific
      literature contains substantial information on fensulfothion
      degradation and transport. Adsorption is described by the linear
      Freundlich isotherm and follows the order
      sulfide>sulfone>fensulfothion.
      III. Soils information
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           A. Degradation and transformation
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           The persistence of fensulfothion in soils under sterile or
      non-sterile conditions is the subject of some disagreement in the
      scientific literature.  In sterile sandy loam and organic soils, the
      half-life of fensulfothion reported in one study was >24wks whereas the
      half-life under non-sterile conditions was about 1wk. In this study a
      95% reduction in the fensulfothion concentration occurred between 4 and
      6wks(7).  An earlier study by the same principal author reported
      persistence of fensulfothion in sterile and non-sterile sand, sediment,
      sandy loam and muck to be about 16wks(6).  Other researchers working
      with non-sterile sandy loam reported a 98% loss of fensulfothion at
      4mo(3) and half-lives of 30-39d for fensulfothion and 14-23d for
      sulfone(4).  In a study on the effect of concentration on degradation,
      again in sandy loam soil, it was found that a low initial concentration
      of fensulfothion (50-175ppm) persisted 50-60d whereas a high
      concentration (250-500ppm) persisted for more than 900d.  Such
      degradation was neither constant nor uniform(8).
           The tables below present data concerning degradation and
      transformation of fensulfothion in soils.  The reference is given in
      parentheses at the end of each title.
      Retention of fensulfothion in various soils (coated clay core) after
      72hrs at 40% moisture and 20deg C.  Soils = Dannevirke sil(D), Egmont
      bl(E), Matapiro sil(M), Orvanui ls(O), Stratford sl(S), Templeton
      sil(T), Timaru sil(Ti), Waikiwi sil(W)(9)
      Soil    %retained    %releasea     Soil     %retained    %release
      _________________________________________________________________
        D       63.8        36.2        S         62.3          37.7
        E       76.4        23.6        T         86.3          13.7
        M       58.6        41.4        Ti        70.9          29.1
        O       59.0        41.0        W         85.4          29.4
      *****************************************************************
      Fensulfothion and sulfone concentration in sandy loam soil with varying
      initial concentration at 24mo after initial application(8)
                                  24 months after application
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      Init.conc.(ppm)       Fensul.(ppm)           Sulfone(ppm)
      _________________________________________________________
           0                    -                      -
          15                   0.6                    <0.08
          35                   3.0                    <0.08
          75                   8.8                    <0.08
         100                   9.4                    <0.08
         150                  37.2                     0.088
         200                  68.2                     0.094
         250                  38.2                     0.50
         350                  38.4                     0.92
         500                  39.6                     1.08
      ******************************************************************
      Ppm fensulfothion or metabolite in sandy loam soil under two
      application rates(4)
      FENSUL APPLIED 1978
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      kg/ha
        Apply  Specie 1d    5d    15d   30d   60d   90d   120d   150d
      _______________________________________________________________
      8.48   FSO   140.9  -      -   80.2  46.07 13.72   -      -
             FSO2   2.96  -      -   20.6  22.33  4.11   -      -
      16.96  FSO   303.5  -      -  154.9  132.7 65.18   -      -
             FSO2   6.49  -      -   33.6   31.4 29.26   -      -           slope of
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      Soil           0     2    4    6    8    10    12    isotherm
      _________________________________________________    ________
      Dannevirke sil  86.9   8.2  4.2  0.6                   0.69
      Egmont bl       56.4  23.3 10.5  7.1  1.9   0.7        0.72
      Matapiro sil    89.7   8.0  1.8  0.4                   0.48
      Oruanui ls      98.9   0.6  0.3                        0.65
      Stratford sl    82.8  15.0  1.8  0.3                   0.70
      Templeton sil   97.9   1.7  0.4                        0.52
      Timaru sil      97.4   1.6  0.8  0.2                   0.62
      Waikiwi sil     98.1   1.4  0.4                        0.60
      ***********************************************************************
      Adsorption parameters for fensulfothion, the sulfide and sulfone in
      various soils(6) (units for K = nanomoles/g)
                   FS                     F              FSO2
      _______________________        _____________     __________________
      Soil    l/n         K          l/n        K      l/n         K
      ____  ___________________     _______________    __________________
      sand   0.903      24.53       0.973      1.46    1.120      0.970
      sed    1.001      57.88       1.081      3.49    0.844      8.78
      sl     0.941      79.80       0.822      8.39    0.993      8.73
      muck   0.708     748.6        0.871     59.92    0.797    147.8
      ***********************************************************************
      Percent fensulfothion, the sulfide or sulfone leached in a given rinse
      or fraction (number given in parentheses) (6)
                        FS                  F                 FSO2
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      Soil                      % leached in (fraction)
      ____          ______________________________________________________
      sand          22% in (9)          95% in (4)           97% in (7)
      sediment      21% in (10)         96% in (4)           98% in (8)
      sandy loam    32% in (2)          90% in (3)           95% in (7)
      muck           0% in (10)         82% in (10)          48% in (10)
      ***********************************************************************
      IV.References (*denotes key reference)
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       1.Bowman, B.T. 1973. SSSAP. 37. 200-7.
       2.Chapman, R.A. and C.M. Cole. 1982. J.Environ.Sci.Health. B17.
                                            _____________________
           487-504.
       3.Chisolm, D. 1974. Can.J.PlantSci. 54. 667-71.
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      *4.Greenhalgh, R. and D.C. Read. 1981. J.Environ.Sci.Health. B16.
                                             ____________________
           363-79.
       5.Kahn, S.U. 1980. Pesticides in the Soil Environment.
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           Amsterdam:Elsevier.
      *6.Miles, J.R.W., B.T. Bowman and C.R. Harris.
           1981.J.Environ.Sci.Health. B16. 309-24.
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      *7.Miles, J.R.W., C.M. Tu and C.R. Harris. 1979.
           Bull.Environ.Contam.Toxicol. 22. 312-18.
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      *8.Sheela, S. and V.N. Vasantharajan. 1977. J.Environ.Sci.Health B12.
                                                  ____________________
           15-35.
      *9.Udy, P.B. 1977. N.Z.J.Ag.Res. 20. 79-85.
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